As the tide began to turn on the Third Reich, German cities came under the constant threat of Allied bombing raids. Hitler then ordered the construction of gigantic flak towers throughout cities of the Reich. With a love for architecture Hitler took a personal interest in the design of the structures and even produced several sketches for the project. The flak towers constructed in Berlin were given such priority that they were completed within 6 months. This required the alteration of the national rail schedule as construction materials were rushed in. With concrete walls up to 3.5m thick the towers were considered to be impregnable and also housed field hospitals and become air raid shelters for civilians. Additional flak towers were also built in Vienna and Hamburg, many more were planned but never finished.
The idea behind the flak towers was to elevate the anti-aircraft guns to provide a clear field of fire unobstructed by trees or other tall buildings while still being situated close to the city. The 3 towers constructed in Berlin were strategically positioned to provide a triangle of 360-degree anti-aircraft fire to protect the city. The towers also acted as radar installations and contained retractable radars to protect them during air raids. As the final days of the war drew closer, boys in their early teens were drafted as Flakhelfers (Flak helpers) to assist Luftwaffe (Air force) personnel with anti-aircraft duties. During the Battle of Berlin the towers housed tens of thousands of civilians resulting in appalling conditions as more wounded were brought in and supplies dwindled.
During the final days of the Battle of Berlin as the Red Army closed in on the Government district of the Third Reich the towers were still operational. The Luftwaffe personnel still manning the powerful guns atop of the Zoo flak tower wound the barrels of their guns down to ground level. As Red Army troops of the 150th and 171st Rifle Divisions began attacking across the Moltke Bridge, Luftwaffe personnel using their 128mm FlaK 40 anti-aircraft guns began unleashing powerful and accurate fire, completely obliterating the advancing attackers. Even on April 30th the Red Army was unable to advance across the open areas in front of the Reichstag due to continued effective fire from the Zoo flak tower. The Red Army, not wanting to attempt an assault on the tower, negotiated a truce which was purposely delayed by the flak tower Commander, Colonel Haller to allow German forces in other areas to breakout.
I made my way to Vienna then Berlin to photograph the remaining towers that had not been erased from the pages of history. In Vienna several remain with only 1 partially still remaining in Berlin. Some towers also remain in Hamburg and Stuttgart. The remaining tower in Berlin is partially destroyed and now only one graffiti covered side remains. You are able to go inside with a tour group which are renowned for being very unreliable. The remaining towers I visited in Vienna are quite prominent in the local area. Two are located in a large park called the Augarten. They are fenced off and their entrances have been sealed. Their future continues to be debated, the remaining tower I visted is in the city centre and has been converted into an aquarium.
Feel free to leave a comment below if you have anything to say.
Flakturm VII L-tower – Augarten, Vienna.
Another view of Flakturm VII L-tower – Augarten, VIenna.
Flakturm VII G-tower – Augarten, Vienna.
Another view of Flakturm VII G-tower – Augarten, Vienna. The beams under the platforms were to be used for maintenance.
The remains of Flakturm III G-Tower – Humboldthain, Berlin.
View from the top of Flakturm III G-Tower – Humboldthain, Berlin.
Gun mounts visible and a post-war height safety fence on Flakturm III G-Tower – Humboldthain, Berlin.
Flakturm V L-Tower has been converted into an aquarium – Esterhazypark, Vienna.
A surviving German 105mm anti-aircraft gun that can be viewed in the German History Museum in Berlin (Deutsches Historisches Museum).
A period photo of a 105mm flak gun on the Zoo flak tower in Berlin and the same flak tower not long after the Battle of Berlin.
While walking around I noticed some damage that is still present from the Battle of Berlin. This damage is most likely from an artillery shell exploding nearby. This was a restaurant under a railway, more prominent buildings have been completely repaired.
jolie reportage, je ne savais pas qu’il en existait encore une .
There is also at least one surviving Flak Tower in Frankfurt. When I visited it in the late 80s/early 90s it was being used as some sort of business (don’t remember what) on the ground floor.
Seems like I visited another one somewhere, but ???
Amazing, very interesting. Thank you for posting.
Great article. Visited the Humboldthain ruins this year. I found the tour company (Berliner Unterwelten)very good and informative. I also did a couple other of their tours, the Cold War shelter one was fascinating.
There is still much evidence of shrapnel and small arms damage to many buildings (although not as much as pre unification)
great pics,would like to see more.
There is definetly no remaining and never build flaktower in frankfurt.
The only one which where build:
3x Berlin (1 still existing)
2x Hamburg ( both are still existing)
3x Vienna (all 3 are still existing and also correspondening LS (Leitstand) Towers are still present.
In Frankfurt are only some Luftschutzbunker still present. Around 12 of ca. 30 which where build.
I loved your article post.Thanks Again. Want more. Drenner
Thanks guys, glad you enjoyed the post.
What a flawless visit with accurate historical and geographical rescues!
Although I get more involved in the campaigns in which Brazil participated in Italy, the WW2 affairs always occupy me and even consuming a good amount of written information and watching dozens of documentaries, I never, never knew that the Flaks received this exuberant type of military characteristic building, a giant fortress, in itself.
Congratulations on the searches and thank you for sharing your visit.